1. How Are Basic Legal Issues Relevant to Community/Public Health Nursing Practice

Want to know more about public health care? Contact one of the Quad Council associations mentioned above. If you are interested in obtaining the Advanced Public Health Nursing Board Certified (APHN-BC) certification, visit the ANCC Certification section to learn more about the ANCC Board certification assessment method. The importance of encouraging health professionals to engage in the wider community has been underscored by the COVID-19 outbreak. Educational institutions should adapt their curricula to the growing value attached to global health and community, as well as public health, in order to cope with these changes and promote health workers with life-saving skills and abilities [2]. The main task of nurses in the field of public health (NPS) is to implement national health policies, in particular with regard to national health care, medical care and disease prevention, all of which fall under the main tasks of NPS [6]. Public health nurses work mainly in health centres. The primary services of health centres are related to the promotion and maintenance of health, the prevention of diseases and the early detection and treatment of diseases, with the aim of ensuring the health of all. Expertise is essential to the delivery of high-quality health services. Quality of care requires that nurses have the skills to meet complex health care requirements. Internationally, studies have shown that a higher enrolment and more nurses in the general health care system are associated with better quality of care, better patient outcomes and fewer adverse events. Records that must be kept by health care providers are typically described in a state`s health code. State reporting laws generally address the steps to be taken when reporting child abuse or neglect, as well as the penalties associated with not reporting known or suspected cases of child abuse.

A summary of the bylaws of the 50 states that require individuals to report child abuse and neglect is available from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services` Child Welfare Information Portal (2011) under www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/ laws_policies/State/. An increasing number of states have passed laws on the protection of confidential communications for sexual abuse. Immunity from legal action is granted to health care providers who report in good faith to a judicial authority the alleged abuses of a client. The laws also set out penalties for not reporting known cases of abuse. Without an adequate knowledge base or understanding of the programs adopted by the federal government, community health nurses will neglect to inform qualified clients about existing federal programs. Other examples of the federal legislation are given in Table 6-2. The principal asks a school nurse to instruct school bus staff and teachers of a child with a disability on replacing an external cannula for a tracheostomy.

The nurse does not consider it appropriate to train laymen to perform this procedure on the student (see Chapter 30). The nurse refuses to instruct the staff. The nurse`s supervisor insists. The nurse must request a decision from the state nursing authority. Data from the U.S. Code, Congressional and Administrative News. (1935, 1937, 1944, 1963, 1965, 1975, 1977, 1981). St. Paul, MN: West Verlag; Centre for Community Change. (1996).

Less money, less rules, more power for the state. The 104th Congress, Department of Public Policy; U.S. Government Printing House. HIPAA, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. Accessed 8. February 2012 by www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-104publ191/content_detail.html; andHealthCare.gov. (2011). Accessed July 27, 2011 by www.healthcare.gov/law/introduction/index.html.

A conviction for a criminal offence may result in imprisonment, probation, loss of privileges (such as a foster care permit), a fine, or a combination of these penalties. If a public health nurse is aware of illegal activities in a client`s home, it would be desirable for the nurse to speak to the care manager to determine whether the law requires the law to report the illegal activity. The nurse must exercise judgment on the threat to society in relation to the impact on the relationship between the nurse and the client. The objective of the study was to identify the current state of NHPs providing health services in the community and to access self-perceived community nursing skills as well as psychological and organizational strengthening of NHPs. Community nursing competence and the empowerment of registered nurses were measured to help managers of health care facilities create a productive and innovative work environment that fosters a sense of empowerment to achieve better quality outcomes. In particular, this study examined the following two research hypotheses: (1) Nursing, communication and management skills influence CE in NPS; (2) Psychological and organizational empowerment in public health is linked to clinical competencies in health care. One problem I have seen in mental health is the patient`s right to refuse treatment. I had a patient who was brought to our waiting ward because he was suicidal and didn`t want to do dialysis anymore. He had end-stage kidney disease and just wanted to die. His suicide plan was to stop dialysis.

He was forced by the police to come to the hospital and was forced to undergo psychiatric treatment. Why has this guy been denied the right to refuse treatment? In August 1996, Congress passed the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). HIPAA enforcement of the Privacy Act began in April 2003. HIPAA gives customers greater control over their personal health information (such as a customer`s status, care, and payments for healthcare). HIPAA protects privacy by defining what customers` privacy rights are, who should have access to customer information, how data should be stored by providers, what constitutes the customer`s right to privacy, and what constitutes inappropriate access to health records. Confidentiality is about how documents should be protected, and security involves steps that nurses and others must take to ensure privacy and confidentiality (Frank-Stromborg and Ganschow, 2002). Caregivers should inform clients of their privacy policy and make a good faith effort to obtain written confirmation of this notice. It is the nurse`s responsibility to protect the confidentiality of clients. Nurses should understand both federal HIPAA regulations and state laws enacted to enforce those regulations, as well as any changes or updates to those regulations. Employers affected by HIPAA are responsible for ensuring that the nurses they employ comply with the regulations.

The law is promulgated by the legislature of the government. The laws of the legislature of the federal and state governments are called laws. Similar local government laws are usually referred to as ordinances. Laws often allow for new health initiatives and appropriate fiscal resources to implement the law. Community and health nurses can influence the political process by influencing legislators and public servants for or against certain laws and ordinances. Official (state) health authorities often enforce laws, in addition to providing health services; Nurses working in these agencies are often part of this enforcement process. This chapter provides a general description of legal issues related to community and public health care and discusses the rights of the public and clients, as well as the rights of nurses. It is important that nurses are aware of the laws for which they are held accountable. Federal laws and regulations apply to individuals throughout the United States, while state and local laws apply in respective state and local jurisdictions.



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